ગુરુવાર, 17 માર્ચ, 2011

History of kutch

Kachchh is an Ancient land; its main history is historical period. It is known as Kachchh due to its Geographical Characteristics and due to its turtle-like shape. This name is in existence in ancient history. Millionths in his Bhashya Sanjivani on Amarkosh has referred to it as moistures land in lower allow or wasteland. This name is found in various water taken by foreign visitors about this region or in stone carvings, bronze carving, old writing or hand written mannscripts. Before rise at Christian era this region situated between Saurashtra and Sindh was described as Abhari, and this name is form in Mohabhaeor also. The Greek visitor and military captain also spoiled the original name of Abhir during second century B.C. and referred it to as Abiriya or Abhir up to third or fourth century A. C. and thereafter also both in names of Abhir and are used. Earlier the Abhir people settled here and hence the region was known as Abhir in earlier period. Because of unique geographical situation with water and wetland around it.
The administrative background of Kachchh seems little confused. The Land is occupied by different people since Ancient period who came from north and east. During he known period of History, it has remained under control of various dynasties ruling over Sindh and Gujarat. It was also a part of Maurya Dynasty, There after; it was under control of Teshak, Kshatrap, Gupta, Haiych etc. Thereafter, the Maitrak, Gurjar, Chalukya, Chowda, Solanki, Kathi and other rulers of Gujarat ruled over it. Thus, Kachchh had very close relations with Gujarat and the stream of its history has offered on this region.
The history of Kachchh can be divided into two periods the ancient and modern or the period starting from 14th Century of Jadeja denasty, and the period thereafter. When the sama Rajput rulers of Sindh won the Kachchh region, a separate state of Kachchh came into existence during 14th century. In ancient Hindu writings, this region is referred as land on sea-shore or desert area. The earlier history of Kachchh is formed in Greek literature.
During 142 – 124 B.C., Kachchh was a part of Mahendra state which covered the area from Yamuna Saurashtra. Immediately hereafter, (120 B.C.) the Greeks were thrown away from Backtriyan Empire. The Shakar or many people settled in Kachchh and North Gujarat during 56 B.C. Vikramaditya defeated them. They returned between 20 to 30 years and Choketstin established his empire. The Partisan had there power between Sindh to South Bharuch. They were defeated in first century. During 1st century A.C. Plins (77 A.C.) refered to about Odambary. They belong to Kachchh. The Amardas described by Pitilemi (150 A.C.) must be their hoad quarter. Another reference about Kutchh indicates that Kachchh was given to Charan people during. Telugu’s publicity, (IC 714D Chasdan were another main population of Kachchh, During this peiriod Arabs had started their attacks on Kathiawad and Gujarat border. They had captured Sindh. They stated to stay an sea shore of Kachchh during 9th century. There is reference about Kachchh in Albirni (970-1034) and as described in it one branch of river Sindhu meets the Sindh sea an Kachchh border. Bhimdev 1st of Anhilwad had run away before mohmad Gazani came to Kachchh (1022-1072D By he end of the century, the forth prime Sumara Sindhar had Manikbai in his possession.

The modern history of Kachchh can be considered from the date was the Sama Rajputs of Sindh won the land of Kachchh. This happened in 14th century or atleast it ended by this time. In the beginning of 15the century (1410), muzfarshah, the he pioneer of Ahmedabad empire defeated captain of Kanthkot (1390 – 1411). Though the rulers belonged to Ahmedabad empire, practically Kachchh was independent 1472. It seems that the Sgadars of Kutch did not have friendly relations with Ardhun dynasty; who had won over Sama of Tota. (1519-1543). According to historians of Sindh, Shahusain (1522-1544) had entred Kachchh is 1530 and had strongly defeated Rao of Kachchh. The there bramin of Jadeja dynasty well represented by Jam Dadarji, Jam Hamiuji and Jam Rawal. Bharmal had gone to Ahmedabad during the rule of Mogal emperor Jahangir; and had offered good gift. Jahangir was very pleased on him. He gave him gifts in return and had waived the Khandani an condition that the pilgrims of Macca will be allowed to pass through Kachchh. In 1741 Lakhaji Rao had imprisoned his father and took over the region of Kachchh. Rao Deshji had ruled upto 1860. There was an unfortunate conflict between Rao Deshalji and his eldest son, but later on, he relations had improved. As he had several incidents of serious illness, Rao had requested to appoint a person vice him for running the administration and to relieve him of burden of ruling over the state.
His request was accepted and on 12th July, he Rao of Kachchh had appointed the eldest son (Yuvraj) as Minister and two other Jadeja Nayaks as member in advisory Board under president ship of political agent. Nest year, on 21st of June, the Advisory Board was dissolved due to urgent request by Rao and the control as state way vested in his obvious heir Pragmalji second. He ruled from 1866 to 1875. After Rao Pragmalji, came Rao Khengar third. He was only 10 years old or the time of his taking over and the administration was carried out under supervision of political agent. This dynasty ruled over Kachchh till independence of India.
The present district of Kachchh made of various states of region and 10 villages of Morbi state after 1947, it was class-‘C’ state and it was ruled by Government of India through Chief Commissioner.
In November 1956, the states were re-organised and greater Bombay state was constituted with Vidarbh, Marathawada, Surashtra and Kachchh region. Thus, kutch district become a part of bi-lingual Bombay state. Thereafter as 1st May, 1960 the state as Bombay was bifurcated and two independent states of Gujarat and State of Maharastra.
And Maharashtra came into existence. From that day, the district of Kachchh became a part of Gujarat state.
Since there were border issues between India and Pakistan about sovereignty over some of the parts of kutch, district; special attention was paid on Kachchh district after independence, It was desided to hand over the dispute to an Independent Arbitration Commission. On 30th June, 1965 both the parties agreed to abide by the decision of Commission and that no objection can be raised against the decision of Commission. The H.Q. of this Commission was at check the Name of city with origina. The commission heard the arguments from both the parties, scrutinized he documents, maps etc. submitted by both the parties and on 19th February 1968 is declared its judgement which is included en the judgement of India and Pakistan’s case on western direction. According to this, the borders work was started in 1968 with poles being erected in land. This ended in June 1969.

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