Archeology is the scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities. Human artifacts from the very first stone tools to the man-made substance that are buried or thrown away in the present day are also included in the archeology. Everything made by human beings--from simple tools to multipart machines, from the earliest houses and temples and tombs to palaces, cathedrals, pyramids and other archeological investigations are the most important sources of knowledge of prehistoric, ancient and destroyed culture. The word comes from the Greek archaia ("ancient things") and logos ("theory" or "science").
Archeologists use the scientific capability of many persons who are not archeologists in their jobs. An archeologist often studies his artifacts that must be studied in their environmental contexts. It is believed that the botanists, zoologists, soil scientists and geologists are brought to identify and explain plants, animals, soils, and rocks. Radioactive Carbon Dating Method, which has revolutionized much of archeological science of determined dates, is a derivative of research in atomic physics. Perhaps it is almost correct to say that the archeologist is first a craftsman, active in many particular crafts (of which mine is the most familiar to the general public) and then a historian.
The archeologist is first an expressive worker. He has to describe, categorize and examine the artifacts he studies. A sufficient and objective classification is the beginning of all archaeologies and many good archeologists spend their lives in this activity of explanation and classification. But the main aim of the archaeologist is to situate the material remains in historical contexts to extra what may be known from written sources, and thus, to increase understanding of the past. Finally, the archaeologist is a historian and his aim is to explain description of the past of man.
The main aim is to develop the present by knowledge of the experiences and achievements of our predecessors because it concerns things people have made. The most direct findings of archaeology put up with on the history of art and technology; but by suggestion it also produces information about the society, religion and economy of the people who created the artifacts. Also, it may bring to light and understand previously unknown written documents, providing even more certain confirmation about the past.
There are many branches of archaeology divided by geographical areas like classical archaeology, the archaeology of ancient Greece and Rome or Egyptology, the archaeology of ancient Egypt or by periods like such as medieval archaeology and industrial archaeology. Writing was begun 5,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Its beginnings were fairly later in India and China and later still in Europe. The characteristic of archaeology that deals with the past of man before he learnt to write has since the middle of 19th century has been referred as prehistoric archaeology or prehistory. In prehistory, the archaeologist is principal for here the only sources are material and environmental.